A 46-year-old female presents to the ED complaining of fatigue, anorexia, and weight loss over the last two weeks. She had the “stomach flu” a couple weeks ago and thought she was getting over it. But now she feels very weak and seems to be vomiting again. On presentation, the patient will have mild hypothermia, hypoglycemia, and hypotension. The team will have to initiate fluid resuscitation and an initial workup. The patient’s blood pressure won’t respond to 4 L of IV fluids, forcing the residents to work through the differential diagnosis of shock. Eventually, they will receive critical VBG results that indicate a mild metabolic acidosis, hyperkalemia, and hyponatremia. The team will need to treat the hyperkalemia and initiate hydrocortisone therapy.
A lethargic 1 week old presents from home after recurrent emesis and progressive sleepiness. He is hypovolemic, hypothermic, and hypoglycemic. If his hypoglycemia is not quickly corrected, he begins to seize and will continue to do so until the team gives glucose. If they do not, the patient will go on to have a VF arrest. If the team identifies and treats the hypoglycemia, orders blood work, and fluid resuscitates the child, they receive blood results demonstrating hyperkalemia and hyponatremia. If they correctly identify and treat the patient as a possible adrenal crisis, the neonate is safely transferred to the PICU. If they fail to treat the hyperkalemia or fail to administer steroids, the patient will have a VF arrest.