A three-year-old child was swimming with their family, when they wandered into the deep end and submerged under water. The parents noticed the child was below the surface. When the child was brought to the surface, they were unconscious and coughing up foam. EHS arrived, provided oxygen supplementation, and brought them to your tertiary emergency department, with access to PICU. In the ED, the child is unconscious with increasing respiratory distress, requiring intubation. Despite intubation, the child remains hypoxemic and the team works through an approach to post-intubation hypoxemia. Unfortunately, the child becomes bradycardic. The team should begin CPR and follow the PALS pediatric bradycardia algorithm. PICU should be called if not already involved. After one round of CPR, the patient’s heart rate will increase and the consulting team should arrive.
Pediatric Status Epilepticus
Pre-notification is sent about an 8-year-old with known seizure disorder coming in via EMS who has been seizing for 7 minutes and is persistently seizing despite intramuscular midazolam. The case will involve managing pediatric status epilepticus and including escalating anti-epileptics, intubation, and handing over to pediatrics.
Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury
An 18-month old previously well child presents to the emergency department of a community hospital with a head injury following an unwitnessed fall from significant height on a play structure with initial loss of consciousness. He is awake but irritable in the trauma bay, with obvious head injury.
A 2.5 year old child falls from the 3rd floor balcony and presents to a community hospital. The team is expected to coordinate a thorough trauma survey. The patient will initially demonstrate compensated shock requiring aggressive resuscitation. After this initial phase, findings of severe head injury will become apparent. The team must optimize the patient for transfer to definitive care.
Pediatric Asthma Exacerbation
Acute asthma exacerbations in children are extremely common. Most asthmatic exacerbations respond quickly to basic treatment with beta-agonists, anticholinergics, and steroids. This case highlights the management of those patients who need treatment that goes beyond the basics.
COVID-19: Pediatric Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome
Elliot, a seven-year old boy, is brought to the emergency department after six days of fever and lethargy. He has a rash, diarrhea and decreased urine output. Both his parents are healthcare workers with possible COVID-19 exposures.
Pediatric Airway Obstruction
This case involves an 8 year-old boy with upper airway obstruction from sausage. When indirect treatment fails, removal with Magill forceps under direct visualization is required. The patient slowly recovers after removal of foreign body but will require admission for monitoring.
The team has been called to help in the ED after a 1 month-old male is brought in seizing. The team is expected to manage the seizure, but then will subsequently realize on examination there are concerning signs for non-accidental trauma, specifically head injury. The team will be expected to establish definitive airway management and consult with PICU and local child protection services.
The learners receive a call from a peripheral hospital about transferring an unwell 8-year-old girl with new DKA. She has been incorrectly managed, receiving a 20cc/kg bolus for initial hypotension as well as an insulin bolus of 8 units (adult sliding scale dose for glucose of >20). The learner must perform a telephone consultation and dictate new orders. On arrival, EMS will state that they lost the IV en route, and the patient will become more somnolent in the ED. The learner should begin empiric treatment for likely cerebral edema and concurrently manage the DKA. Physical exam will show a peritonitic abdomen with guarding in the RLQ. Empiric Abx should be started for likely appendicitis. Due to decreasing neurologic status and vomiting, the patient will eventually require an advanced airway. The challenge is to optimize the peri-intubation course and ventilation to allow for compensation of her metabolic acidosis.
Acute Chest Syndrome
A 4-year-old boy with known sick cell disease presents with two days of cough and a one afternoon of fever. The patient is initially saturating at 88%, looks unwell and is in moderate-severe distress. During the case, the patient’s oxygenation with drop and the emergency team is expected to provide airway support. They will also need to pick appropriate induction agents for intubation. The case will end with ICU admission. During the case, the mother will also be challenging/questioning the team until a team member is delegated to help keep the mother calm.