A 2.5 year old child falls from the 3rd floor balcony and presents to a community hospital. The team is expected to coordinate a thorough trauma survey. The patient will initially demonstrate compensated shock requiring aggressive resuscitation. After this initial phase, findings of severe head injury will become apparent. The team must optimize the patient for transfer to definitive care.
A 70-year old female is brought to the ED after lighting herself on fire while trying to light a cigarette. She will have a 15% TBSA burn (upper anterior chest and neck only) with inhalational injury. Preparation for intubation should be an early priority. Her prognosis is poor but survivable and it will be key to discuss goals of care with the family before proceeding with intubation and further burn care. A difficult intubation should be anticipated but is not encountered in this case.
The team receives advance notification from EMS about a 30 year-old female who is visibly pregnant and was in a car accident. Upon arrival to the ED the patient loses pulses and CPR begins. The team must begin ACLS/ATLS and proceed to resuscitative hysterotomy. After delivery they should begin neonatal resuscitation and continue management of the mother. Early consultation should be made to trauma surgery, NICU, and OB.
This is the sixth and final case in a six-part mini-series focusing on the management of geriatric patients in the ED. This series of cases was written by Drs. Rebecca Shaw, Nemat Alsaba, and Victoria Brazil. Dr. Rebecca Shaw is an emergency physician currently working as a medical education fellow within the Emergency Department of … Continue reading Geriatric Case 6: Elder Abuse
An 81-year old man falls down the stairs at home. He is initially asymptomatic but his level of consciousness declines and he starts to show signs of raised ICP. Providers must recognize and treat this, as well as reverse his anticoagulation, provide neuroprotective RSI and safely transport to the CT scanner. Providers must then talk with the patient’s wife, to provide information on his condition and prognosis and discuss the patient’s goals of care.
A 64-year old man is involved in a high-speed car crash. The trauma team is activated and he is brought directly to the ED. On arrival, he is hypoxic, tachycardic and altered. CXR reveals multiple rib fractures with a right-sided hemopneumothorax.
The team has been called to help in the ED after a 1 month-old male is brought in seizing. The team is expected to manage the seizure, but then will subsequently realize on examination there are concerning signs for non-accidental trauma, specifically head injury. The team will be expected to establish definitive airway management and consult with PICU and local child protection services.
A 44 year-old male arrives by EMS to a tertiary care ED where the trauma team has been activated. He was the driver in a single-vehicle MVC. He presents screaming and moaning with a GCS of 13. He has an obvious open fracture of his right forearm. He also has decreased air entry to the right side of his chest. The team will need to recognize the tension pneumothorax as part of their primary survey. They will then need to irrigate and splint the right arm after they have completed their secondary survey. As the secondary survey is being completed, the patient will become hypotensive again. This time, the team will find free fluid in the RUQ.
The case will start with an EMS patch indicating that they are 2 minutes out with multi-trauma from a 2 car MVC. Two patients will then arrive within 1 minute of each other. The first will have gone VSA en route from presumed blunt trauma. This patient will not regain a pulse. The second patient will arrive with significant burns from a car fire, and will have GCS of 3 necessitating intubation. All attempts at intubation will be unsuccessful, and a surgical airway must be performed. The team will need to prioritize resources between the two patients and realize that an ED thoracotomy is not reasonable in the first patient.
A 16-year-old female presents following an MVC. Past medical history is significant for hemophilia A. She has a laceration on her arm and a bruise on her forehead, but denies HA/N/V. The learner should recognize high potential for bleeding, and implement immediate treatment with rVIII replacement, along with pan-CT imaging. The CT head will show a small ICH. The patient wants to leave AMA following normal CT results, and the learner must preform a capacity assessment and outline a plan of action for the incompetent patient. The patient should be sedated and/or intubated anticipating decline using neuroprotective measures. Consults should be made to the ICU and hematology.