Multi-case Resuscitation

This is a multi-case simulation.  The initial patient will present with a STEMI. The resident will need to arrange for cardiac catheterization and provide appropriate medical treatment. The exact moment these orders are completed, a stroke activation will be called for a patient eligible for tPA.  Stroke protocol needs to be followed and tPA will need to be given. As soon as tPA is pushed, the resident will be handed an EKG with signs of hyperkalemia and told that a patient with depression has checked in. The resident will need to immediately evaluate the patient with hyperkalemia and give appropriate medications or they will decline. As they are pushing the medications, a Trauma Level One will be called. The trauma will be an open book pelvic fracture with hypotension and a positive FAST. The patient will need a pelvic binder, blood products, and go immediately to the OR. At this time, the resident will need to follow up on the stroke and hyperkalemia patients before evaluating the patient presenting with depression.

Bronchiolitis

Four days ago, an older sibling who recently started pre-school had a cold. The next day, Zarah fell sick. She has had a runny nose and cough but seemed to be doing fine until yesterday when she did not eat or drink very much. This morning, she had some noisy breathing, and her chest looked funny while she was breathing. When it did not go away after a couple of hours, Zarah’s parents called 811 for advice. They were directed to go to the emergency department. The patient will progress through escalating respiratory support and eventually require intubation and transfer to higher level of care.

Wide Complex Tachycardia WPW

A 37F with no past medical history presents with wide complex tachycardia. She is initially stable, and after unsuccessful treatments, will decompensate either with hypotension or with polymorphic atrial fibrillation, and require synchronized cardioversion. After stabilizing the patient, she is revealed to have undiagnosed Wolfe-Parkinson-White.

Ending a resuscitation

The medical aspect of this case is a relatively straight-forward out-of-hospital cardiac arrest where the team must recognize futility and make the decision to stop resuscitation efforts. The primary goal is simulating the experience of making a termination of resuscitation decision, and managing the impacts of a patient’s death. Other goals could also be scaffolded onto this scenario as deemed appropriate by the simulation instructor, including breaking bad news to family member or a simulated hot debrief with the team. 

Accidental Hypothermia

A 24-year-old previously healthy male presents to the ED with absent vital signs. He is out for a trail run when he becomes trapped in waist deep cold water. When he is found by search and rescue, he is awake with altered mental status. He has a cardiac arrest on retrieval and is found to be severely hypothermic. CPR and ACLS is initiated and he is transferred to the nearest community ED. The resuscitation team is expected to perform ACLS specific to hypothermic arrest. The patient will require intubation, active rewarming, defibrillation and discussion with the ECMO physician on call for transport and ECMO assisted rewarming.  

Tracheostomy Emergency

48-year-old male with a recent tracheostomy presents with sudden onset respiratory distress. The patient is unable to be oxygenated or ventilated through the tracheostomy tube. The team must recognize that the tracheostomy tube is either obstructed or displaced. Attempts to correct tracheostomy obstruction with suctioning and cuff deflation are not successful. Removal of the tracheostomy tube is required, followed by either oral intubation or placement of a new tracheostomy tube. The patient improves once oral or stomal intubation is performed. If tracheostomy tube is not removed, the patient worsens and goes into cardiac arrest secondary to respiratory failure.

Undifferentiated Abdominal Pain + Shock

A 67yr old male with multiple comorbidities is brought by ambulance with a 3-day history of diffuse abdominal pain. The history is vague and the differential of his symptoms remains very broad. He develops significantly worsening pain and hypotension and becomes obtunded. As the patient’s condition deteriorates, the team must initiate management of abdominal pain plus shock and support the hemodynamics with vasopressors/inotropes. The team will need to intubate to facilitate advanced imaging and definitive care. 

Airway Obstruction from FB

This case involves a 60-year-old male patient who arrives VSA in PEA after collapsing while eating dinner with family. The collateral history included that he was suspected to be intoxicated. The patient is difficult to bag with EMS. The learner will have to work through the can’t ventilate/can’t oxygenate scenario once they identify that BVM is ineffective. 

Armed Overdose

In this case a 44 y/o M is brought in via EMS after receiving 0.4mg of naloxone for what is suspected to be an opioid overdose. He remains GCS 7 upon arrival in the resuscitation bay. The team will need to work through the differential for altered LoC and will find drug paraphernalia and a loaded weapon on the patient upon inspection. The case will end with successful treatment and consultation with local police with regard to weapon and contraband protocols.