This patient is in respiratory failure and requires intubation. Participants must prepare for her arrival, organize the care team, communicate effectively and secure the patient's airway according to the principles of a protected intubation.
A 41-year old male with HIV (not on treatment) presents to the ED with a cough for 10 days, progressive dyspnea and fever. He is hypoxic at triage and brought immediately to the resuscitation room. He has transient improvement on oxygen but then has progressive worsening of his hypoxia and dyspnea. Intubation is required. The team needs to prepare for RSI and identify that the BVM is missing from the room prior to intubation.
A 33 year-old female is dragged out of a burning house and presents to the ED unresponsive. She has soot on her face, singed eyebrows, and burns to her entire chest, the front of her right arm, and part of her right leg. She is hypotensive and tachycardic with a GCS of 3. The team should proceed to intubate and fluid resuscitate. After this, the team will receive a critical VBG result that reveals profound metabolic acidosis, carboxyhemoglobin of 25 and a lactate of 11. If the potential for cyanide toxicity is recognized and treated, the case will end. If it is not, the patient will proceed to VT arrest.
A 7-year-old male presents with wheeze, rash and increased WOB after eating a birthday cake. He has a known allergy to peanuts. The team must initiate usual anaphylaxis treatment including salbutamol for bronchospasm. The patient will then develop worsened hypotension, requiring the start of an epinephrine infusion. After this the patient will experience increased angioedema, prompting the team to consider intubation. If no paralytic is used for intubation (or if intubation is delayed), the patient will experience laryngospasm. The team will be unable to bag-mask ventilate the patient until they ask for either deeper sedation or a paralytic. If a paralytic is used, the team will be able to successfully intubate the child.
A 55-year-old man presents to the ED as a STEMI call. He is profoundly hypotensive with low O2 sats and obvious CHF. The patient’s blood pressure will transiently respond to fluid resuscitation. The ECG will show anterolateral ST elevation. The team will need to prepare for intubation while activating the cath lab. They will also need to start vasopressors. The patient will remain hypotensive until an inotrope like dobutamine is initiated. If unsafe medications are chosen for intubation, the patient will have a VT arrest.
The learner will be presented with an altered febrile patient, requiring an initial broad work-up and management plan. The learner will receive a critical VBG report of severe acidosis, hypoglycemia and hypokalemia, requiring management. Following this, the rest of the blood work and investigations will come back, giving the diagnosis of salicylate overdose. The patient’s mental status will continue to decline and learners should proceed to intubate the patient, anticipating issues given the acid-base status. The learner should also initiate urinary alkalinization and make arrangements for urgent dialysis.
A 65-year-old female is brought to the ED with chest tightness and SOB. On arrival, she will be found to have an inferior STEMI with resultant 3rd degree heart block and hypotension. The team will be expected to initiate vasopressor support and transcutaneous pacing. However, prior to doing so, the patient will develop a VT arrest requiring ACLS care. After ROSC, the team will need to initiate transcutaneous pacing and activate the cath lab for definitive management.
A 3-day-old term male infant is brought to the ED by EMS after being seen at their Family Physician’s office with a low temperature (33.1oC). The child has been feeding poorly for about 12 hours, and has vomited twice. He is lethargic on examination and poorly perfused with intermittent apneas lasting ~ 20 seconds. He requires immediate fluid resuscitation and broad-spectrum antibiotics. His perfusion will improve after IVF boluses, however the apneas will persist and necessitate intubation.
A 32-year-old female presents after being bucked off of her horse. She is brought in as a trauma team activation because of a low BP. Her primary survey will reveal a boggy hematoma over her right temporal area as well as an unstable pelvis. Her initial GCS will be 8. The team will proceed through airway management in a hypotensive, head-injured trauma patient while also binding her pelvis. The patient eventually shows signs of brain herniation, which the team will need to manage prior to consultant arrival.
A 4 year-old girl is brought to the ED because she is “not herself.” She has had 3 days of fever and cough and is previously healthy. She looks toxic on arrival with delayed capillary refill, a glazed stare, tachypnea and tachycardia. The team will be unable to obtain IV access and will need to insert an IO. Once they have access, they will need to resuscitate by pushing fluids. If they do not, the patient’s BP will drop. If a cap sugar is not checked, the patient will seize. The patient will remain listless after fluid resuscitation and will require intubation.