Pediatric DKA

The learners receive a call from a peripheral hospital about transferring an unwell 8-year-old girl with new DKA. She has been incorrectly managed, receiving a 20cc/kg bolus for initial hypotension as well as an insulin bolus of 8 units (adult sliding scale dose for glucose of >20). The learner must perform a telephone consultation and dictate new orders. On arrival, EMS will state that they lost the IV en route, and the patient will become more somnolent in the ED. The learner should begin empiric treatment for likely cerebral edema and concurrently manage the DKA. Physical exam will show a peritonitic abdomen with guarding in the RLQ. Empiric Abx should be started for likely appendicitis. Due to decreasing neurologic status and vomiting, the patient will eventually require an advanced airway. The challenge is to optimize the peri-intubation course and ventilation to allow for compensation of her metabolic acidosis.

Newborn Sepsis with Apneas

A 3-day-old term male infant is brought to the ED by EMS after being seen at their Family Physician’s office with a low temperature (33.1oC). The child has been feeding poorly for about 12 hours, and has vomited twice. He is lethargic on examination and poorly perfused with intermittent apneas lasting ~ 20 seconds. He requires immediate fluid resuscitation and broad-spectrum antibiotics. His perfusion will improve after IVF boluses, however the apneas will persist and necessitate intubation.

Pediatric Septic Shock

A 4 year-old girl is brought to the ED because she is “not herself.” She has had 3 days of fever and cough and is previously healthy. She looks toxic on arrival with delayed capillary refill, a glazed stare, tachypnea and tachycardia. The team will be unable to obtain IV access and will need to insert an IO. Once they have access, they will need to resuscitate by pushing fluids. If they do not, the patient’s BP will drop. If a cap sugar is not checked, the patient will seize. The patient will remain listless after fluid resuscitation and will require intubation.

Coarctation of the Aorta

A 2-week-old neonate presents in shock requiring the learner to implement an initial broad work-up. The patient will also be hypoglycemic, and will seize if this is not promptly recognized. Physical exam and CXR findings will suggest coarctation of the aorta as the likely cause, and the learner should recognize the need for gentle fluid boluses and a prostaglandin infusion. Unless learners anticipate appropriately and intubate the patient prior to beginning the prostaglandins, the infant will become apneic after starting the infusion and require intubation.

Postpartum Hemorrhage and NRP

The team receives advanced notification from EMS about a woman who is imminently delivering. Upon arrival, delivery will be uncomplicated, but the neonate will appear lifeless. Neonatal resuscitation should be initiated. Eight minutes into the neonatal resuscitation, the team leader will be notified that the mother continues to hemorrhage and is becoming hypotensive. They must begin concurrent workup and management of the mother while continuing to run the neonatal resuscitation. Second & third line medical therapies for uterine atony will be needed, and also manual uterine exploration and packing. Early consultation should be made to NICU, ICU, OB, and Interventional Radiology.

Acute Chest Syndrome

A 4-year-old boy with known sick cell disease presents with two days of cough and a one afternoon of fever. The patient is initially saturating at 88%, looks unwell and is in moderate-severe distress. During the case, the patient’s oxygenation with drop and the emergency team is expected to provide airway support. They will also need to pick appropriate induction agents for intubation. The case will end with ICU admission. During the case, the mother will also be challenging/questioning the team until a team member is delegated to help keep the mother calm.


An 8 year old girl who has been tired and “unwell” for several days presents to the ED with an acute decline in her mental status. She is confused and lethargic. It becomes quickly apparent that the child is in DKA and requires immediate treatment. Due to decreasing neurologic status and vomiting, she eventually requires an advanced airway. The challenge is to optimize the peri-intubation course and to appropriately ventilate to allow for compensation of her metabolic acidosis.

Procedural Sedation with Laryngospasm

The emergency team is preparing to perform a conscious sedation on a 7-year-old boy to facilitate the reduction of a fracture of the radius and ulna. They will be expected to do an airway assessment and pick an appropriate agent for sedation. In the middle of sedation, the patient’s oxygen saturation will suddenly drop and the patient will stop breathing. The team will be unable to bag the patient until they ask for either deeper sedation or a paralytic. If they administer succinylcholine, the patient will become bradycardic and require atropine.

CAH with adrenal crisis

A lethargic 1 week old presents from home after recurrent emesis and progressive sleepiness. He is hypovolemic, hypothermic, and hypoglycemic. If his hypoglycemia is not quickly corrected, he begins to seize and will continue to do so until the team gives glucose. If they do not, the patient will go on to have a VF arrest. If the team identifies and treats the hypoglycemia, orders blood work, and fluid resuscitates the child, they receive blood results demonstrating hyperkalemia and hyponatremia. If they correctly identify and treat the patient as a possible adrenal crisis, the neonate is safely transferred to the PICU. If they fail to treat the hyperkalemia or fail to administer steroids, the patient will have a VF arrest.