This is the second in a case series we will be publishing that make up “The Nightmares Course”.
The Nightmares Course at Queen’s University (Kingston, Ontario) was developed in 2011 by Drs. Dan Howes and Mike O’Connor. The course emerged organically in response to requests from first year residents wanting more training in the response to acutely unwell patients. In 2014, Dr. Tim Chaplin took over as the course director and has expanded the course to include first year residents from 14 programs and to provide both formative feedback and summative assessment. The course involves 4 sessions between August and November and a summative OSCE in December. Each session involves 4-5 residents and covers 3 simulated scenarios that are based on common calls to the floor. The course has been adapted for use at the University of Saskatchewan, the University of Manitoba, and the University of Calgary.
Why it Matters
The first few months of residency can be a stressful time with long nights on call and the adjustment to a new level of responsibility. While help should always be available, the first few minutes of managing a decompensating patient is something all junior residents must be competent at. This case series will help to accomplish that through simulation.
Mr. Jim Smith is a 64 year old male that was admitted 3 days ago. He was diagnosed with a community acquired pneumonia and started on daily Moxifloxacin. The nurse is concerned about his increasing shortness of breath since she started the night shift 4 hours ago.
In this case, the patient has been admitted for pneumonia and treated with the usual antibiotics. However, the team has not yet recognized that the causative bacteria is resistant to this antibiotic. The pneumonia has progressed and the team must manage the patient’s respiratory distress and sepsis. The patient requires a change in antibiotics, non-invasive ventilatory support and IV fluid resuscitation.
This case is written by Dr. Rob Woods. He works in both the adult and pediatric emergency departments in Saskatoon and has been working in New Zealand for the past year. He is the founder and director of the FRCP EM residency program in Saskatchewan.
Why it Matters
This case highlights important manifestations of sepsis in a neonate. In particular, it reinforces that:
Apneas, hypoglycemia, and hypothermia are commonly seen as a result of systemic illness in neonates
Prolonged or persistent apneas with associated desaturations require management with either high-flow oxygen or intubation
Fluid resuscitation and broad-spectrum antibiotics are important early considerations when managing toxic neonates
To be stated by the Paramedic with the Resus Nurse at bedside: “We picked up this term 3-day old male infant at their GPs office. Mom reports poor feeding for the past 12 hours, and two episodes of vomiting. They took him to the GPs office this morning and they found the temperature to be quite low at 33.1°C. They called us concerned about sepsis. We were only 5 minutes away so we have not obtained IV access. We did obtain a glucose level of 2.7. The child is lethargic and has very poor perfusion – peripheral cap refill is 7 seconds. We don’t have a cuff to get an accurate BP but the HR is 190.”
A 3-day-old term male infant is brought to the ED by EMS after being seen at their Family Physician’s office with a low temperature (33.1oC). The child has been feeding poorly for about 12 hours, and has vomited twice. He is lethargic on examination and poorly perfused with intermittent apneas lasting ~ 20 seconds. He requires immediate fluid resuscitation and broad-spectrum antibiotics. His perfusion will improve after IVF boluses, however the apneas will persist and necessitate intubation.
This case is written by Dr. Kyla Caners. She is a staff emergency physician in Hamilton, Ontario and the Simulation Director of McMaster University’s FRCP-EM program. She is also one of the Editors-in-Chief here at EmSimCases.
Why it Matters
Children with true septic shock are, thankfully, a rare presentation in the ED. However, recognition of early shock is an essential skill. This case highlights several important features of managing the critically ill child, including:
The need for early vascular access (whether that be intravenous or intraosseous, it must be obtained expediently)
The importance of monitoring for and treating resultant hypoglycemia
The need for early antibiotics
A 4-year-old girl presents to your pediatric ED. Her mother states she is “not herself” and seems “lethargic.” She’s had a fever and a cough for the last three days. Today she just seems different. She was brought straight into a resus room and the charge nurse came to find you to tell you the child looks unwell.
A 4 year-old girl is brought to the ED because she is “not herself.” She has had 3 days of fever and cough and is previously healthy. She looks toxic on arrival with delayed capillary refill, a glazed stare, tachypnea and tachycardia. The team will be unable to obtain IV access and will need to insert an IO. Once they have access, they will need to resuscitate by pushing fluids. If they do not, the patient’s BP will drop. If a cap sugar is not checked, the patient will seize. The patient will remain listless after fluid resuscitation and will require intubation.
This case was written by Dr. Martin Kuuskne from McGill University. Dr. Kuuskne is a PGY5 Emergency Medicine resident and one of the editors-in-chief at EMSimCases.
Why it Matters
Although recent literature has challenged the use of protocolized care in the management of sepsis, this case highlights the key points that are crucial in early sepsis care, namely:
The recognition of sepsis and identifying a likely source of infection
The initiation of broad-spectrum antibiotics in the emergency department
Hemodynamic resuscitation with intravenous fluids and vasopressor therapy
You are working a day shift at a community hospital emergency department. You are handed a chart of a patient presenting with abdominal pain. You recognize the following vital signs: Heart rate 120, blood pressure 85/55, respiratory rate 20, and O2 Saturation 95%.
A 60-year-old male presents with a four-day history of abdominal pain secondary to cholangitis. The patient presents in septic shock requiring intravenous fluid resuscitation, empiric broad-spectrum antibiotics and vasopressor support and suffers a PEA arrest prior to disposition to advanced imaging or definitive management.